Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012

H.R.1905
Introduced: 
May 13, 2011
112
First
August 10, 2012
Became Public Law

This bill, introduced last session as the ‘Iran Threat Reduction Act of 2011,’ was subsequently combined with the Syria Human Rights Accountability Act (S. 2034 of 1/24/12). It is the most major expansion of sanctions on Iran in recent years and represents the culmination of multiple efforts throughout the 112th Congress.

The bill seeks to create a comprehensive strategy that includes economic sanctions, diplomacy, and military planning, capabilities, and options. The bill’s premise is that denying Iran a nuclear weapon is critical for U.S. security interests. Rather than significantly increasing pressure, this bill expands and streamlines the existing program by blocking avenues Iran had been using to circumvent previous sanctions.

The Iran component of the bill seeks to curtail Iran’s nuclear program by expanding existing sanctions on the Iranian shipping and energy sectors and individuals involved with Iran’s energy, banking, and finance sectors; with human rights abuses; or with the nuclear program. The new sanctions also cover individuals involved in deals with individuals responsible for the shipping and transportation of weapons of mass destruction, the materials to create them, and materials transferred to foreign terrorist organizations.

The bill also authorizes increased U.S. assistance to Iranian opposition groups and tightens sanctions against members of the Revolutionary Guard. It requires the president to create a list of Iranian government officials who are involved in illicit nuclear activities or who support international terror or the commission of serious human rights abuses, subjecting all individuals on the list (and their families) to sanctions and barring their entry to the U.S. The bill restricts the president’s ability to waive these new sanctions by requiring a case-by-case assessment and reporting to Congress.

This new sanctions program does maintain the loophole for the 20 countries that significantly reduced their oil purchases from Iran. The bill calls for development of additional incentives for purchase of crude oil outside of Iran, expanded efforts to limit import of Iranian crude oil from the international community, and elimination of revenue generated from trade on Iranian crude oil in other countries.

The bill was the subject of election-year partisan politics. In May of 2011, the Senate version was held up by Republican senators who wished to increase the sanctions’ severity. On 5/17/12, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) brought an updated version of the bill to the floor for a vote, but Republicans blocked it, reneging on private agreements. It was at that point, during last-minute negotiations, that Republican senators expanded the scope of the bill’s new sanctions beyond the Iranian oil industry to cover the banking and finance sectors, thus making passage possible. (Sen. Jim Demint [R-SC] framed the new sanctions as a defense of Israel.) Reporting on the bill’s passage, the Tehran Times commented that the ‘US Congress is in the hands of the Israel Lobby.’ This bill was a major focus for the American Israeli Political Action Committee (AIPAC), NORPAC, the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, and the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA).

For the Syria portion of this bill, see S. 2034 of 1/24/12

364 cosponsors (218R, 146D)

See also: H. Res. 750 of 8/1/12 and S. 2034 of 1/24/12.

Last major action: 8/10/12 became public law 112-158 (5/21/12 passed in Senate by voice vote; 12/14/11 passed in House 410–11).

Sponsor/Cosponsors:

Gary Ackerman(D-)Sandy Adams(R-FL)Robert Aderholt(R-AL)Todd Akin(R-MO)Rodney Alexander(R-LA)Jason Altmire(D-PA)Mark E. Amodei(R-NV)Robert Andrews(D-NJ)Steve Austria(R-OH)Joe Baca(D-CA)Michele Marie Bachmann(R-MN)Spencer Bachus(R-AL)Louis Barletta(R-PA)John Barrow(D-GA)Roscoe Bartlett(R-MD)Joe Barton(R-TX)Karen Bass(D-CA)Charles Bass(R-NH)Daniel Benishek(R-MI)Rick Berg(R-ND)Shelly Berkley(D-NV)Howard Berman(D-CA)Judy Biggert(R-IL)Brian Bilbray(R-CA)Gus Bilirakis(R-FL)Timothy Bishop(D-)Sanford Jr Bishop(D-GA)Rob Bishop(R-UT)Diane Black(R-TN)Marsha Blackburn(R-TN)Jo Bonner(R-AL)Mary Bono Mack(R-CA)Madeleine Bordallo(D-)Dan Boren(D-OK)Leonard Boswell(D-IA)Charles Jr Boustany(R-LA)Robert Brady(D-PA)Bruce Braley(D-IA)Mo Brooks(R-AL)Paul Jr. Broun(R-GA)Corrine Brown(D-FL)Vernon Buchanan(R-FL)Larry Bucshon(R-IN)Ann Marie Buerkle(R-NY)Michael Burgess(R-TX)Dan Burton(R-IN)Ken Calvert(R-CA)John Campbell(R-CA)Francisco Canseco(R-TX)Shelly Moore Capito(R-WV)Lois Capps(D-CA)Dennis Cardoza(D-CA)Russ Carnahan(D-MO)John Carney(D-DE)John Carter(R-TX)Bill Cassidy(R-LA)Kathy Castor(D-FL)Steve Chabot(R-OH)Jason Chaffetz(R-UT)Ben Chandler(D-KY)Judy Chu(D-CA)David Cicilline(D-RI)Hansen Clarke(D-MI)Yvette Clarke(D-)William Clay Jr(D-MO)Emanuel Cleaver(D-MO)Howard Coble(R-NC)Mike Coffman(R-CO)Stephen Cohen(D-TN)Tom Cole(R-OK)Mike Conaway(R-TX)Gerry Connolly(D-VA)Jim Costa(D-CA)Jerry Costello(D-IL)Joe Courtney(D-CT)Chip Cravaack(R-MN)Rick Crawford(R-AR)Ander Crenshaw(R-FL)Mark S. Critz(D-PA)Joseph Crowley(D-)Henry Cuellar(D-TX)John Culberson(R-TX)Elijah Cummings(D-MD)Susan Davis(D-CA)Danny Davis(D-IL)Peter DeFazio(D-OR)Diana DeGette(D-CO)Rosa Delauro(D-CT)Jeff Denham(R-CA)Charlie Dent(R-PA)Scott DesJarlais(R-TN)Ted Deutch(D-FL)Mario Diaz-Balart(R-FL)Norm Dicks(D-WA)Robert Dold(R-IL)Joe Donnelly(D-IN)Mike Doyle(D-PA)Sean Duffy(R-WI)Jeff Duncan(R-SC)Renee Ellmers(R-NC)JoAnn Emerson(R-MO)Eliot Engel(D-)Anna Eshoo(D-CA)Blake Farenthold(R-TX)Sam Farr(D-CA)Chaka Fattah(D-PA)Bob Filner(D-CA)Steven Fincher(R-TN)Michael Fitzpatrick(R-PA)Jeff Flake(R-AZ)Chuck Fleischmann(R-TN)John C. Fleming(R-LA)Bill Flores(R-TX)Randy Forbes(R-VA)Jeffrey Lane Fortenberry(R-NE)Virginia Foxx(R-NC)Barney Frank(D-MA)Trent Franks(R-AZ)Rodney Frelinghuysen(R-NJ)Marcia Fudge(D-OH)Elton Gallegly(R-CA)John Garamendi(D-CA)Cory Gardner(R-CO)Scott Garrett(R-NJ)Jim Gerlach(R-PA)Bob Gibbs(R-OH)Chris Gibson(R-NY)Phil Gingrey(R-GA)Charlie Gonzalez(D-TX)Bob Goodlatte(R-VA)Paul Gosar(R-AZ)Kay Granger(R-TX)Tom Graves(R-GA)Sam Graves(R -MO)Al Green(D-TX)Gene Green(D-TX)Tim Griffin(R-AR)Michael Grimm(R-NY)Frank Guinta(R-NH)Brett Guthrie(R-)Janice Hahn(D-CA)Colleen Hanabusa(D-HI)Richard Hanna(R-NY)Gregg Harper(R-MS)Andy Harris(R-MD)Vicky Hartzler(R-MO)Alcee Hastings(D-FL)Doc Hastings(R-WA)Nan Hayworth(R-NY)Joe Heck(R-NV)Martin Heinrich(D-NM)Jeb Hensarling(R-TX)Wally Herger(R-CA)Jaime Herrera Beutler(R-WA)Brian Higgins(D-)Jim Himes(D-CT)Ruben Hinojosa(D-TX)Mazie Hirono(D-HI)Kathleen Hochul(D-NY)Tim Holden(D-PA)Rush Holt(D-NJ)Mike Honda(D-CA)Steny Hoyer(D-MD)Tim Huelskamp(R-KS)Bill Huizenga(R-MI)Randy Hultgren(R-IL)Duncan Hunter(D-CA)Robert Hurt(R-VA)Jay Inslee(D-WA)Steve Israel(D-)Darrell Issa(R-CA)Jesse Jackson Jr(D-IL)Lynn Jenkins(R-KS)Bill Johnson(R-OH)Tim Johnson(D-SD)Hank Johnson(D-GA)James Jordan(R-OH)Marcy Kaptur(D-OH)William Keating(D-MA)Mike Kelly(R-PA)Ron Kind(D-WI)Pete King(R-)Steven King(R-IA)Jack Kingston(R-GA)Adam Kinzinger(R-IL)Larry Kissell(D-NC)John Kline(R-MN)Douglas Lamborn(R-CO)Leonard Lance(R-NJ)Jeffrey Landry(R-LA)Jim Langevin(D-RI)James Lankford(R-OK)Rick Larsen(D-WA)John Larson(D-CT)Tom Latham(R-IA)Steven Latourette(R-OH)Robert Latta(R-OH)Jerry Lewis(R-CA)John Lewis(D-GA)Daniel Lipinski(D-IL)Frank Lobiondo(R-NJ)David Loebsack(D-IA)Zoe Lofgren(D-CA)Billy Long(R-MO)Nita Lowey(D-)Frank Lucas(R-OK)Blaine Luetkemeyer(R-MO)Ben R. Lujan(D-NM)Cynthia Lummis(R-WY)Dan Lungren(R-CA)Stephen Lynch(D-MA)Connie Mack(R-FL)Carolyn Maloney(D-)Don Manzullo(R-IL)Kenny Ewell Marchant(R-TX)Tom Marino(R-PA)Edward Markey(D-MA)Jim Matheson(D-UT)Doris Matsui(D-CA)Kevin McCarthy(R-CA)Carolyn McCarthy(D-)Michael McCaul(R-TX)Tom McClintock(R-CA)Thaddeus McCotter(R-MI)Patrick McHenry(R-NC)Mike McIntyre(D-NC)Howard McKeon(R-CA)David McKinley(R-WV)Cathy McMorris Rodgers(R-WA)Jerry McNerney(D-CA)Patrick Meehan(R-PA)Gregory Meeks(D-)John Mica(R-FL)Mike Michaud(D-ME)Candice Miller(R-MI)Gary Miller(R-CA)Jeff Miller(R-FL)Chris Murphy(D-CT)Tim Murphy(R-PA)Sue Myrick(R-NC)Jerrold Nadler(D-NY)Grace Napolitano(D-CA)Richard Neal(D-MA)Randy Neugebauer(R-TX)Kristi Noem(R-SD)Eleanor Holmes Norton(D-DC)Richard Nugent(R-FL)Devin Gerald Nunes(R-CA)Alan Nunnelee(R-MS)Pete Olson(R-TX)Bill Owens(D-NY)Steven Palazzo(R-MS)Frank Pallone Jr(D-NJ)Bill Pascrell Jr(D-NJ)Erik Paulsen(R-MN)Steve Pearce(R-NM)Mike Pence(R-IN)Edwin Perlmutter(D-CO)Gary Peters(D-MI)Chellie Pingree(D-ME)Joe Pitts(R-PA)Todd Platts(R-PA)Ted Poe(R-TX)Jared Polis(D-CO)Mike Pompeo(R-KS)Bill Posey(R-FL)Tom Price(R-GA)Ben Quayle(R-AZ)Mike Quigley(D-IL)Nick Rahall(D-WV)Charles Rangel(D-)Tom Reed(R-NY)Denny Rehberg(R-MT)Dave Reichert(R-WA)James Renacci(R-OH)Sylvestre Reyes(D-TX)Reid Ribble(R-WI)Laura Richardson(D-CA)Cedric Richmond(D-LA)Scott Rigell(R-VA)David Rivera(R-FL)David "Phil" Roe(R-TN)Mike J. Rogers(R-MI)Hal Rogers(R-KY)Mike D Rogers(R-AL)Dana Rohrabacher(R-CA)Todd Rokita(R-IN)Tom Rooney(R-FL)Peter Roskam(R-IL)Dennis Ross(R-FL)Steve Rothman(D-NJ)Lucille Roybal-Allard(D-CA)Ed Royce(R-CA)Jon Runyan(R-NJ)Dutch Ruppersberger(D-MD)Tim Ryan(D-OH)Paul Ryan(R-WI)Loretta Sanchez(D-CA)Linda Sanchez(D-CA)John Sarbanes(D-MD)Stephen Joseph Scalise(R-LA)Jan Schakowsky(D-IL)Adam Schiff(D-CA)Bobby Schilling(R-IL)Jean Schmidt(R-OH)Aaron Schock(R-IL)Kurt Schrader(D-OR)Allyson Schwartz(D-PA)David Schweikert(R-AZ)Austin Scott(R-SC)David Scott(D-GA)Tim Scott(R-GA)Pete Sessions(R-TX)Terri Sewell(D-AL)Brad Sherman(D-CA)John Shimkus(R-IL)Heath Shuler(D-NC)Bill Shuster(R-PA)Mike Simpson(R-ID)Albio Sires(D-NJ)Louise McIntosh Slaughter(D-)Lamar Smith(R-TX)Adam Smith(D-WA)Chris Smith(R-NJ)Adrian Smith(R-NE)Steve Southerland(R-FL)Jackie Speier(D-CA)Cliff Stearns(R-FL)Steve Stivers(R-OH)John Sullivan(R-OK)Betty Sue Sutton(D-OH)Lee Terry(R-NE)Mike Thompson(D-CA)Glenn Thompson(R-PA)Patrick Tiberi(R-OH)Scott Tipton(R-CO)Paul Tonko(D-NY)Edolphus Towns(D-)Niki Tsongas(D-MA)Robert L. Turner(R-NY)Michael Turner(R-OH)Fred Upton(R-MI)Chris Van Hollen(D-MD)Pete Visclosky(D-IN)Tim Walberg(R-MI)Greg Walden(R -OR)Joe Walsh(R-IL)Debbie Wasserman-Shultz(D-FL)Henry Waxman(D-CA)Daniel Webster(R-FL)Peter Welch(D-VT)Allen West(R-FL)Lynn Westmoreland(R-GA)Joe Wilson(R-SC)Frederica Wilson(D-FL)Robert Wittman(R-VA)Frank Wolf(R-VA)Steve Womack(R-AR)Rob Woodall(R-GA)John Yarmuth(D-KY)Kevin Yoder(R-KS)Todd Young(R-IN)Don Young(R-AK)C W Bill Young(R-FL)

More info

For more information, Click Here to visit this measure’s page at congress.gov.