Nuclear Iran Prevention Act of 2013

February 27, 2013
July 31, 2013
Passed in House

In addition to strengthening enforcement of the existing sanctions program, this bill would expand sanctions on Iran’s energy and financial sectors and human rights violators. It would also restrict the president’s ability to waive existing sanctions, impose sanctions on Iranian mining, and, for the first time, apply secondary sanctions to any entity that maintains commercial ties with Iran. Taken together, these measures constitute the most drastic increase in pressure on Iran that the House considered this session.

Additionally, the bill would enhance congressional oversight of the sanctions program and officially label the Iranian Revolutionary Guard a foreign terrorist organization.

Furthermore, in order to close the ‘Euro Loophole,’ this bill would limit Iran’s access to its foreign exchange reserves, particularly those held in Euros. That loophole was one of the last ways Iran had been able to circumvent previous U.S. sanctions. The bill would also express Congress’s view that the president should pressure European countries to restrict Iran’s access to the Euro (see S. 892 of 5/8/13 for more on the ‘Euro loophole’).

In terms of congressional oversight, the bill would direct the secretary of state to submit 2 reports to Congress: one examining the hypothetical timetable for Iran to produce a nuclear weapon and the other analyzing the efficacy of the sanctions program. The bill would also require the president to develop a ‘national strategy’ on Iran which would explore Iranian vulnerabilities and address Iran’s economic strategy.

One minor measure included in this bill that is noteworthy for conveying the overall climate in Congress stipulates that the secretary of state should hire a special coordinator for women’s human rights and political participation in Iran.

Generating support for the bill was a major focus of the American Israeli Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) conference, held on 3/3–3/5, and of NORPAC’s lobby day on 5/8, and AIPAC featured the proposed law prominently on its website. Its passage by the House Foreign Affairs Cmte. on 5/22 garnered a supportive note from Israeli PM Netanyahu’s office. Over 4,200 attendees lobbied Congress in favor of this bill at the Christians United for Israel (CUFI) annual conference lobbying day (7/24). On 8/23, the Jewish Council for Public Affairs began circulating a petition in support of the bill and urged the Senate to pass it. By mid-October, it had collected over 5,000 signatures and the support of numerous American Jewish organizations.

In a letter addressed to congressional leadership and circulated in the media, a group of Democrats requested a postponement of a vote on the bill from 7/31 to 8/4 in order to provide time for a diplomatic overture to Iran on the inauguration of its new president, Hassan Ruhani. House leadership ignored their efforts and the bill was passed on 7/31. (Following President Ruhani’s address to the UN General Assembly on 9/24, AIPAC sent out a call for reenergized support of this bill.)

While Pres. Obama did not take a public stand on the bill, administration officials commented that the timing of its passage could negatively affect diplomatic efforts. Throughout 10/2013, the administration focused its efforts on delaying the Senate vote on new sanctions. On 10/29, administration staffers met with officials from AIPAC, the Anti-Discrimination League (ADL), and the American Jewish Committee (AJC) in order to ask for a 60-day reprieve from lobbying in favor of this bill. At first, the ADL agreed to the temporary break, only to reverse its position on 11/13 after details emerged from the renewed Israeli-Palestinian talks under Secy. Kerry’s leadership. AIPAC and the AJC rejected the administration’s initiative from the outset.

Though Senate leaders never brought the bill to the floor for consideration, the Senate did consider similar legislation increasing sanctions on Iran. See S. 1197 of 6/20/13 and S. 1881 of 1


Robert Aderholt(R-AL)Rodney Alexander(R-LA)Mark E. Amodei(R-NV)Robert Andrews(D-NJ)Michele Marie Bachmann(R-MN)Spencer Bachus(R-AL)Ron Barber(D-AZ)Louis Barletta(R-PA)Andy Barr(R-KY)John Barrow(D-GA)Joe Barton(R-TX)Karen Bass(D-CA)Joyce Beatty(D-OH)Daniel Benishek(R-MI)Kerry Bentivolio(R-MI)Ami Bera(D-CA)Gus Bilirakis(R-FL)Timothy Bishop(D-)Sanford Jr Bishop(D-GA)Rob Bishop(R-UT)Diane Black(R-TN)Marsha Blackburn(R-TN)Suzanne Bonamici(D-OR)Jo Bonner(R-AL)Charles Jr Boustany(R-LA)Kevin Brady(R-TX)Robert Brady(D-PA)Bruce Braley(D-IA)Jim Bridenstine(R-OK)Susan Brooks(R-IN)Mo Brooks(R-AL)Paul Jr. Broun(R-GA)Corrine Brown(D-FL)Julia Brownley(D-CA)Vernon Buchanan(R-FL)Larry Bucshon(R-IN)Michael Burgess(R-TX)Cheri Bustos(D-IL)GK Butterfield(D-NC)Ken Calvert(R-CA)John Campbell(R-CA)Shelly Moore Capito(R-WV)Tony Cardenas(D-CA)John Carney(D-DE)John Carter(R-TX)Matt Cartwright(D-PA)Bill Cassidy(R-LA)Kathy Castor(D-FL)Joaquin Castro(D-TX)Steve Chabot(R-OH)Jason Chaffetz(R-UT)Judy Chu(D-CA)David Cicilline(D-RI)Emanuel Cleaver(D-MO)Howard Coble(R-NC)Mike Coffman(R-CO)Stephen Cohen(D-TN)Tom Cole(R-OK)Doug Collins(R-GA)Chris Collins(R-NY)Mike Conaway(R-TX)Gerry Connolly(D-VA)Paul Cook(R-CA)Jim Cooper(D-TN)Jim Costa(D-CA)Tom Cotton(R-AR)Joe Courtney(D-CT)Kevin Cramer(R-ND)Rick Crawford(R-AR)Ander Crenshaw(R-FL)Joseph Crowley(D-)Henry Cuellar(D-TX)John Culberson(R-TX)Steve Daines(R-MT)Danny Davis(D-IL)Susan Davis(D-CA)Rodney Davis(R-IL)Diana DeGette(D-CO)Ron DeSantis(R-FL)Susan DelBene(D-WA)John Delaney(D-MD)Rosa Delauro(D-CT)Jeff Denham(R-CA)Charlie Dent(R-PA)Scott DesJarlais(R-TN)Ted Deutch(D-FL)Mario Diaz-Balart(R-FL)Mike Doyle(D-PA)Tammy Duckworth(D-IL)Sean Duffy(R-WI)Jeff Duncan(R-SC)Renee Ellmers(R-NC)Eliot Engel(D-)William Enyart(D-IL)Anna Eshoo(D-CA)Elizabeth Esty(D-CT)Chaka Fattah(D-PA)Steven Fincher(R-TN)Michael Fitzpatrick(R-PA)Chuck Fleischmann(R-TN)John C. Fleming(R-LA)Bill Flores(R-TX)Randy Forbes(R-VA)Jeffrey Lane Fortenberry(R-NE)Bill Foster(D-IL)Virginia Foxx(R-NC)Lois Frankel(D-FL)Trent Franks(R-AZ)Rodney Frelinghuysen(R-NJ)Marcia Fudge(D-OH)Tulsi Gabbard(D-HI)Pete Gallego(D-TX)John Garamendi(D-CA)Joe Garcia(D-FL)Cory Gardner(R-CO)Scott Garrett(R-NJ)Jim Gerlach(R-PA)Bob Gibbs(R-OH)Chris Gibson(R-NY)Phil Gingrey(R-GA)Bob Goodlatte(R-VA)Paul Gosar(R-AZ)Trey Gowdy(R-SC)Kay Granger(R-TX)Sam Graves(R -MO)Tom Graves(R-GA)Alan Grayson(D-FL)Al Green(D-TX)Gene Green(D-TX)Tim Griffin(R-AR)Morgan Griffith(R-VA)Michael Grimm(R-NY)Brett Guthrie(R-)Luis Gutierrez(D-IL)Janice Hahn(D-CA)Colleen Hanabusa(D-HI)Richard Hanna(R-NY)Gregg Harper(R-MS)Andy Harris(R-MD)Vicky Hartzler(R-MO)Doc Hastings(R-WA)Alcee Hastings(D-FL)Dennis Heck(D-WA)Joe Heck(R-NV)Jeb Hensarling(R-TX)Jaime Herrera Beutler(R-WA)Brian Higgins(D-)Jim Himes(D-CT)Ruben Hinojosa(D-TX)George Holding(R-NC)Rush Holt(D-NJ)Mike Honda(D-CA)Steven Horsford(D-NV)Steny Hoyer(D-MD)Richard Hudson(R-NC)Tim Huelskamp(R-KS)Jared Huffman(D-CA)Bill Huizenga(R-MI)Randy Hultgren(R-IL)Duncan Hunter(D-CA)Robert Hurt(R-VA)Steve Israel(D-)Darrell Issa(R-CA)Sheila Jackson-Lee(D-TX)Hakeem Jeffries(D-NY)Lynn Jenkins(R-KS)Hank Johnson(D-GA)Sam Johnson(R-TX)Bill Johnson(R-OH)James Jordan(R-OH)David Joyce(R-OH)William Keating(D-MA)Mike Kelly(R-PA)Robin L. Kelly(D-IL)Joseph Kennedy III(D-MA)Derek Kilmer(D-WA)Ron Kind(D-WI)Steven King(R-IA)Pete King(R-)Jack Kingston(R-GA)Adam Kinzinger(R-IL)Ann Kirkpatrick(D-AZ)John Kline(R-MN)Ann M. Kuster(D-NH)Doug LaMalfa(R-CA)Douglas Lamborn(R-CO)Leonard Lance(R-NJ)Jim Langevin(D-RI)James Lankford(R-OK)Rick Larsen(D-WA)John Larson(D-CT)Tom Latham(R-IA)Robert Latta(R-OH)Sander Levin(D-MI)John Lewis(D-GA)Daniel Lipinski(D-IL)Frank Lobiondo(R-NJ)David Loebsack(D-IA)Zoe Lofgren(D-CA)Billy Long(R-MO)Alan Lowenthal(D-CA)Nita Lowey(D-)Frank Lucas(R-OK)Blaine Luetkemeyer(R-MO)Ben R. Lujan(D-NM)Michelle Lujan Grisham(D-NM)Cynthia Lummis(R-WY)Dan Maffei(D-NY)Sean Patrick Maloney(D-NY)Carolyn Maloney(D-)Kenny Ewell Marchant(R-TX)Tom Marino(R-PA)Edward Markey(D-MA)Jim Matheson(D-UT)Doris Matsui(D-CA)Carolyn McCarthy(D-)Kevin McCarthy(R-CA)Michael McCaul(R-TX)Tom McClintock(R-CA)Patrick McHenry(R-NC)Mike McIntyre(D-NC)Howard McKeon(R-CA)David McKinley(R-WV)Cathy McMorris Rodgers(R-WA)Jerry McNerney(D-CA)Mark Meadows(R-NC)Patrick Meehan(R-PA)Gregory Meeks(D-)Grace Meng(D-NY)Luke Messer(R-IN)John Mica(R-FL)Mike Michaud(D-ME)Candice Miller(R-MI)Jeff Miller(R-FL)Gary Miller(R-CA)Markwayne Mullin(R-OK)Mick Mulvaney(R-SC)Tim Murphy(R-PA)Patrick Murphy(D-PA)Jerrold Nadler(D-NY)Grace Napolitano(D-CA)Richard Neal(D-MA)Randy Neugebauer(R-TX)Kristi Noem(R-SD)Rick Nolan(D-MN)Richard Nugent(R-FL)Alan Nunnelee(R-MS)Pete Olson(R-TX)Bill Owens(D-NY)Steven Palazzo(R-MS)Frank Pallone Jr(D-NJ)Bill Pascrell Jr(D-NJ)Ed Pastor(D-AZ)Erik Paulsen(R-MN)Donald Payne(D-NJ)Steve Pearce(R-NM)Edwin Perlmutter(D-CO)Scott Perry(R-PA)Gary Peters(D-MI)Scott Peters(D-CA)Tom Petri(R -WI)Robert Pittenger(R-NC)Joe Pitts(R-PA)Mark Pocan(D-WI)Ted Poe(R-TX)Jared Polis(D-CO)Mike Pompeo(R-KS)Bill Posey(R-FL)Tom Price(R-GA)Mike Quigley(D-IL)Trey Radel(R-FL)Nick Rahall(D-WV)Charles Rangel(D-)Tom Reed(R-NY)Dave Reichert(R-WA)James Renacci(R-OH)Reid Ribble(R-WI)Tom Rice(R-SC)Cedric Richmond(D-LA)Scott Rigell(R-VA)Martha Roby(R-AL)David "Phil" Roe(R-TN)Hal Rogers(R-KY)Mike D Rogers(R-AL)Dana Rohrabacher(R-CA)Todd Rokita(R-IN)Tom Rooney(R-FL)Ileana Ros-Lehtinen(R-FL)Peter Roskam(R-IL)Dennis Ross(R-FL)Keith Rothfus(R-PA)Lucille Roybal-Allard(D-CA)Raul Ruiz(D-CA)Jon Runyan(R-NJ)Dutch Ruppersberger(D-MD)Paul Ryan(R-WI)Tim Ryan(D-OH)Matt Salmon(R-AZ)Loretta Sanchez(D-CA)Linda Sanchez(D-CA)John Sarbanes(D-MD)Stephen Joseph Scalise(R-LA)Jan Schakowsky(D-IL)Adam Schiff(D-CA)Brad Schneider(D-IL)Aaron Schock(R-IL)Kurt Schrader(D-OR)Allyson Schwartz(D-PA)David Schweikert(R-AZ)Austin Scott(R-SC)Robert Scott(D-VA)David Scott(D-GA)James Jr Sensenbrenner(R-WI)Jeff Sessions(R-AL)Terri Sewell(D-AL)Carol Shea-Porter(D-NH)Brad Sherman(D-CA)John Shimkus(R-IL)Bill Shuster(R-PA)Mike Simpson(R-ID)Kyrsten Sinema(D-AZ)Albio Sires(D-NJ)Louise McIntosh Slaughter(D-)Jason Smith(R-MO)Chris Smith(R-NJ)Adam Smith(D-WA)Adrian Smith(R-NE)Lamar Smith(R-TX)Steve Southerland(R-FL)Jackie Speier(D-CA)Chris Stewart(R-UT)Steve Stivers(R-OH)Steve Stockman(R-TX)Marlin Stutzman(R-IN)Eric Swalwell(D-CA)Mark Takano(D-CA)Lee Terry(R-NE)Mike Thompson(D-CA)Bennie Thompson(D-MS)Glenn Thompson(R-PA)Patrick Tiberi(R-OH)Scott Tipton(R-CO)Dina Titus(D-NV)Paul Tonko(D-NY)Niki Tsongas(D-MA)Michael Turner(R-OH)Fred Upton(R-MI)David Valadao(R-CA)Chris Van Hollen(D-MD)Juan Vargas(D-CA)Marc Veasey(D-TX)Filemon Vela Jr.(D-TX)Nydia Velazquez(D-)Ann Wagner(R-MO)Tim Walberg(R-MI)Greg Walden(R -OR)Jackie Walorski(R-IN)Timothy Walz(D-MN)Debbie Wasserman-Shultz(D-FL)Henry Waxman(D-CA)Randy K. Weber(R-TX)Daniel Webster(R-FL)Brad Wenstrup(R-OH)Lynn Westmoreland(R-GA)Ed Whitfield(R-KY)Roger Williams(R-TX)Joe Wilson(R-SC)Frederica Wilson(D-FL)Robert Wittman(R-VA)Frank Wolf(R-VA)Steve Womack(R-AR)Rob Woodall(R-GA)John Yarmuth(D-KY)Kevin Yoder(R-KS)Ted Yoho(R-FL)Todd Young(R-IN)Don Young(R-AK)C W Bill Young(R-FL)

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