United States-Israel Enhanced Security Cooperation Act of 2012

March 5, 2012
July 27, 2012
Became Public Law

This bill, designed to strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship in various new ways, is predicated on the notion that political upheaval in the Middle East could negatively affect Israeli security.

It extends both loan guarantees to Israel and Israel’s right to use ‘obsolete or surplus items’ from U.S. war reserve stockpiles (established in 1990 and intended for use by the U.S. or Israel in emergency situations) at Israeli military bases. It also creates a new reporting mechanism to explore new ways to aid the Israeli military.

This iteration of the loan guarantee program was created in 2003 to address an economic recession in Israel brought on by the second intifada (see H.R. 1559 of 4/2/03 for details). It originally authorized up to $9 b. in guarantees. Of this, $3.8 b. remained available to Israel, but the program expired on 9/30/11. This bill authorizes the remaining $3.8 b. to be available for Israel until 9/30/15.

Israel is permitted to use loans backed by this program only to refinance its debt and not for activity beyond its 6/5/1967 borders. Any funds used for settlement activity can be deducted from the remaining loan guarantees; since 2003, $1.0853 b. has been deducted for settlement activity and for building the separation wall.

Loan guarantees between states act the same way as between individuals. In this case, an American loan guarantee to Israel is a promise from the U.S. to pay off the balance of Israel’s loans if Israel cannot. Loan guarantees from the U.S., a reliable financial entity, enable Israel to obtain lower interest rates. While Israel has not used guarantees since 2005, simply having them improves its credit rating and reduces its interest rates. Most famously, the George H. W. Bush admin. used loan guarantee conditionality as part of the incentive package that persuaded a then-financially desperate Israel to take part in the Madrid Conference of 1991.

The bill requires the president to submit 2 reports to Congress and installs congressional oversight procedures on all the measures listed above. The first report will assess the status of Israel’s qualitative military edge ‘in light of current trends and upheaval in the region.’ The second will detail the president’s actions to improve the cost efficiency and timely delivery of F-35 fighter aircraft to Israel; expand cooperation with Israel on security, energy, and other areas; and integrate Israel into the defense of the Eastern Mediterranean.

The bill also contains nonbinding language identifying specific ways the U.S.-Israel alliance could be strengthened. These include strengthening efforts to prevent weapons smuggling into Gaza, offering the Israeli Air Force additional training opportunities in the U.S., allowing Israel to make more purchases directly from U.S. weapons manufacturers, encouraging an expanded role for Israel in NATO, extending loan guarantees to Israel, and expanding intelligence cooperation, including an expansion of Israeli access to U.S. satellite intelligence.

This bill, introduced the day Benjamin Netanyahu arrived in the U.S. to speak at the 2012 AIPAC conference, was a major focus of AIPAC’s lobbying efforts. Indicative of the importance of Israel support in the 2012 presidential race, Pres. Obama signed the bill into law the day before presidential candidate Mitt Romney left for a trip to Israel.

304 cosponsors (170R, 134D)

See also: companion measure *S. 2165 of 3/6/12.

Last major action: 7/27/12 companion measure signed into law (5/9/12 passed in House 411–2–9).


Gary Ackerman(D-)Sandy Adams(R-FL)Mark E. Amodei(R-NV)Robert Andrews(D-NJ)Steve Austria(R-OH)Joe Baca(D-CA)Michele Marie Bachmann(R-MN)Spencer Bachus(R-AL)Louis Barletta(R-PA)John Barrow(D-GA)Roscoe Bartlett(R-MD)Joe Barton(R-TX)Charles Bass(R-NH)Daniel Benishek(R-MI)Rick Berg(R-ND)Shelly Berkley(D-NV)Howard Berman(D-CA)Gus Bilirakis(R-FL)Sanford Jr Bishop(D-GA)Timothy Bishop(D-)Marsha Blackburn(R-TN)Suzanne Bonamici(D-OR)Jo Bonner(R-AL)Dan Boren(D-OK)Leonard Boswell(D-IA)Robert Brady(D-PA)Kevin Brady(R-TX)Bruce Braley(D-IA)Mo Brooks(R-AL)Paul Jr. Broun(R-GA)Corrine Brown(D-FL)Vernon Buchanan(R-FL)Ann Marie Buerkle(R-NY)Michael Burgess(R-TX)Dan Burton(R-IN)Ken Calvert(R-CA)Francisco Canseco(R-TX)Shelly Moore Capito(R-WV)Dennis Cardoza(D-CA)Russ Carnahan(D-MO)John Carney(D-DE)John Carter(R-TX)Kathy Castor(D-FL)Steve Chabot(R-OH)Jason Chaffetz(R-UT)Ben Chandler(D-KY)Judy Chu(D-CA)David Cicilline(D-RI)Yvette Clarke(D-)Hansen Clarke(D-MI)William Clay Jr(D-MO)Emanuel Cleaver(D-MO)Howard Coble(R-NC)Mike Coffman(R-CO)Tom Cole(R-OK)Mike Conaway(R-TX)Gerry Connolly(D-VA)Jim Cooper(D-TN)Jim Costa(D-CA)Jerry Costello(D-IL)Joe Courtney(D-CT)Ander Crenshaw(R-FL)Mark S. Critz(D-PA)Joseph Crowley(D-)Henry Cuellar(D-TX)John Culberson(R-TX)Elijah Cummings(D-MD)Susan Davis(D-CA)Diana DeGette(D-CO)Rosa Delauro(D-CT)Jeff Denham(R-CA)Charlie Dent(R-PA)Ted Deutch(D-FL)Mario Diaz-Balart(R-FL)Robert Dold(R-IL)Joe Donnelly(D-IN)Mike Doyle(D-PA)Sean Duffy(R-WI)Jeff Duncan(R-SC)Renee Ellmers(R-NC)JoAnn Emerson(R-MO)Eliot Engel(D-)Anna Eshoo(D-CA)Eni Faleomavaega(D-AS)Blake Farenthold(R-TX)Chaka Fattah(D-PA)Bob Filner(D-CA)Steven Fincher(R-TN)Michael Fitzpatrick(R-PA)Jeff Flake(R-AZ)Chuck Fleischmann(R-TN)Bill Flores(R-TX)Randy Forbes(R-VA)Virginia Foxx(R-NC)Barney Frank(D-MA)Trent Franks(R-AZ)Rodney Frelinghuysen(R-NJ)Marcia Fudge(D-OH)Elton Gallegly(R-CA)Cory Gardner(R-CO)Jim Gerlach(R-PA)Bob Goodlatte(R-VA)Paul Gosar(R-AZ)Trey Gowdy(R-SC)Kay Granger(R-TX)Tom Graves(R-GA)Al Green(D-TX)Gene Green(D-TX)Morgan Griffith(R-VA)Michael Grimm(R-NY)Frank Guinta(R-NH)Luis Gutierrez(D-IL)Janice Hahn(D-CA)Ralph Hall(R-TX)Colleen Hanabusa(D-HI)Andy Harris(R-MD)Vicky Hartzler(R-MO)Alcee Hastings(D-FL)Doc Hastings(R-WA)Nan Hayworth(R-NY)Joe Heck(R-NV)Jaime Herrera Beutler(R-WA)Brian Higgins(D-)Jim Himes(D-CT)Mazie Hirono(D-HI)Kathleen Hochul(D-NY)Tim Holden(D-PA)Rush Holt(D-NJ)Steny Hoyer(D-MD)Tim Huelskamp(R-KS)Bill Huizenga(R-MI)Duncan Hunter(D-CA)Robert Hurt(R-VA)Steve Israel(D-)Darrell Issa(R-CA)Jesse Jackson Jr(D-IL)Sheila Jackson-Lee(D-TX)Lynn Jenkins(R-KS)Bill Johnson(R-OH)Hank Johnson(D-GA)James Jordan(R-OH)Marcy Kaptur(D-OH)William Keating(D-MA)Mike Kelly(R-PA)Ron Kind(D-WI)Steven King(R-IA)Pete King(R-)Adam Kinzinger(R-IL)Larry Kissell(D-NC)John Kline(R-MN)Douglas Lamborn(R-CO)Leonard Lance(R-NJ)Jeffrey Landry(R-LA)Jim Langevin(D-RI)Rick Larsen(D-WA)John Larson(D-CT)Tom Latham(R-IA)Steven Latourette(R-OH)Sander Levin(D-MI)Daniel Lipinski(D-IL)Frank Lobiondo(R-NJ)Billy Long(R-MO)Nita Lowey(D-)Frank Lucas(R-OK)Ben R. Lujan(D-NM)Cynthia Lummis(R-WY)Connie Mack(R-FL)Carolyn Maloney(D-)Kenny Ewell Marchant(R-TX)Tom Marino(R-PA)Edward Markey(D-MA)Jim Matheson(D-UT)Doris Matsui(D-CA)Kevin McCarthy(R-CA)Carolyn McCarthy(D-)Michael McCaul(R-TX)Tom McClintock(R-CA)Thaddeus McCotter(R-MI)Patrick McHenry(R-NC)Mike McIntyre(D-NC)Howard McKeon(R-CA)David McKinley(R-WV)Cathy McMorris Rodgers(R-WA)Jerry McNerney(D-CA)Patrick Meehan(R-PA)Gregory Meeks(D-)John Mica(R-FL)Mike Michaud(D-ME)Jeff Miller(R-FL)Candice Miller(R-MI)Gary Miller(R-CA)Tim Murphy(R-PA)Chris Murphy(D-CT)Jerrold Nadler(D-NY)Richard Neal(D-MA)Randy Neugebauer(R-TX)Kristi Noem(R-SD)Eleanor Holmes Norton(D-DC)Richard Nugent(R-FL)Devin Gerald Nunes(R-CA)Alan Nunnelee(R-MS)Pete Olson(R-TX)Bill Owens(D-NY)Steven Palazzo(R-MS)Frank Pallone Jr(D-NJ)Bill Pascrell Jr(D-NJ)Erik Paulsen(R-MN)Steve Pearce(R-NM)Edwin Perlmutter(D-CO)Gary Peters(D-MI)Pedro Pierluisi(D-PR)Joe Pitts(R-PA)Todd Platts(R-PA)Ted Poe(R-TX)Jared Polis(D-CO)Mike Pompeo(R-KS)Bill Posey(R-FL)Tom Price(R-GA)Ben Quayle(R-AZ)Mike Quigley(D-IL)Nick Rahall(D-WV)Charles Rangel(D-)Tom Reed(R-NY)Dave Reichert(R-WA)James Renacci(R-OH)Sylvestre Reyes(D-TX)Reid Ribble(R-WI)Laura Richardson(D-CA)Cedric Richmond(D-LA)David Rivera(R-FL)Martha Roby(R-AL)David "Phil" Roe(R-TN)Mike J. Rogers(R-MI)Tom Rooney(R-FL)Ileana Ros-Lehtinen(R-FL)Peter Roskam(R-IL)Dennis Ross(R-FL)Steve Rothman(D-NJ)Lucille Roybal-Allard(D-CA)Ed Royce(R-CA)Jon Runyan(R-NJ)Dutch Ruppersberger(D-MD)Paul Ryan(R-WI)Tim Ryan(D-OH)Loretta Sanchez(D-CA)Linda Sanchez(D-CA)John Sarbanes(D-MD)Stephen Joseph Scalise(R-LA)Jan Schakowsky(D-IL)Adam Schiff(D-CA)Bobby Schilling(R-IL)Jean Schmidt(R-OH)Aaron Schock(R-IL)Allyson Schwartz(D-PA)David Schweikert(R-AZ)David Scott(D-GA)Jose Serrano(D-)Pete Sessions(R-TX)Terri Sewell(D-AL)Brad Sherman(D-CA)Heath Shuler(D-NC)Bill Shuster(R-PA)Albio Sires(D-NJ)Louise McIntosh Slaughter(D-)Lamar Smith(R-TX)Adam Smith(D-WA)Chris Smith(R-NJ)Steve Southerland(R-FL)Jackie Speier(D-CA)Cliff Stearns(R-FL)Steve Stivers(R-OH)Betty Sue Sutton(D-OH)Lee Terry(R-NE)Bennie Thompson(D-MS)Glenn Thompson(R-PA)Mike Thompson(D-CA)Patrick Tiberi(R-OH)John Tierney(D-MA)Scott Tipton(R-CO)Paul Tonko(D-NY)Edolphus Towns(D-)Niki Tsongas(D-MA)Robert L. Turner(R-NY)Fred Upton(R-MI)Chris Van Hollen(D-MD)Nydia Velazquez(D-)Pete Visclosky(D-IN)Tim Walberg(R-MI)Greg Walden(R -OR)Timothy Walz(D-MN)Debbie Wasserman-Shultz(D-FL)Henry Waxman(D-CA)Daniel Webster(R-FL)Allen West(R-FL)Lynn Westmoreland(R-GA)Joe Wilson(R-SC)Frederica Wilson(D-FL)Frank Wolf(R-VA)Steve Womack(R-AR)Rob Woodall(R-GA)Kevin Yoder(R-KS)Todd Young(R-IN)Don Young(R-AK)C W Bill Young(R-FL)

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